Nội dung Xemina khoa học bằng tiếng Anh lần 2 (tháng 4 năm 2018)

E-government and the fourth industrial revolution

1. E-government

E-government still is the hot topic that attracts much attention to countries and organizations to research. It is the term that is combined by two words: “electronic” and “Government”. It is started using in the 50s and has become to be popular since the 90s of the 20th century. Nowadays, there are some different definitions of this term.

Starting from the reality of government activities in many nations, the UN defines: “E-government is the concept of the government agencies using information technology as a large scale network, the Internet, and mobile solutions to communicate with citizens, business and themselves, the government”. The World Bank publishes their definition: “constructing e-government is the activities that government agencies manipulate systematically information technology to communicate with citizens, bussiness and social organizations. Thanks to that activity, the activities of government agencies which regard to citizens and organizations can be improved and developed on the side of quality. The benefits will reduce corruption and enhance the transparency, convenience as well as contribute to the development and reduce the expenditure”.

Recently, they are the two definitions that are recognized widely and considered through the right direction of the strongly changing process of governments and nations from dominated management to served one with using electronic information system which provides public services to citizens and businesses.

According to Sally Katzen deputy director of the agency manages national budgets in the Bill Clinton presidential term of office: “E-government involves access to government information and services 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, in a way that is focused on the needs of our citizens and businesses. E-Government relies heavily on agency use of the Internet and other emerging technologies to receive and deliver information and services easily, quickly, efficiently, and inexpensively”.  This is not only a brief definition, but also it points the differences among e-government and conventional government. The content of e-government that are shown in the concept, quickly become the goal in the conceiving e-government's strategies of many nations and made it to become the understandable definition and the most popular quote.

So, from the definition that referred above, e-government could be considered as the manipulation of the achievements in information technology of government and the way they contact with other factors in society, like citizens and business, in order to distribute services to the customer in unlimited time. E-government owns two notable characters: applying information and communication technology and improving effectively government activities help people and business completing their democratic rights and participating in government management.

Moreover, e-government comes toward reaching mutual relationship: government to citizens (G2C), government to business (G2B), government to employees (G2E) and government to government (G2G), to become more and more friendly, convenient and transparent. These relationships could be remained constantly by modern and timeless communicated transported devices. In long term, the electronic services could help reducing expenditure in providing government services. People have a trend using more and more electronic services of government because they do not have to travel, write letters or make phone calls to government agencies in order to require performing certain services. In addition, more and more services are supplied online, e-government could become the revolution in the relation amongst governments and citizens.

2. The fourth industrial revolution – characteristics and advantages

According to Professor Klaus Schwab, president of World economy forum,

Industry 4.0 or the 4th industrial revolution is the term involve a serial automatically modern technologies that exchange data and product. The fourth industrial revolution is defined as a group term that supports to the technologies and concepts involved in value chains which come together with the physical system in virtual space, Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Services (IoS).

The first industrial revolution (1784) put an end to the dependence of humankind in the animal forces and human physical force and changed to use fossil energies and steam engines; the technological breakthrough in the second industrial revolution (1870) was electrification, wire and wireless communication, artificial fertilizer and form of electricities; the third industrial revolution (1969) is the breed of digital technological and communicational systems and the developments in computer technologies that programmed, created, processed and shared information. The fourth industrial revolution was born in the foundation of the third one. It emphasizes on the inventions, discoveries and the combination of 3 huge trends: physicalization, digitalization, biomedicalization. In other words, it is the combination of three worlds: the physical world, virtual world (digital world) and biological world. As similar as the third one, this industrial revolution is predicted to influence strongly, deeply to all the nations in the world.

It is obvious that this revolution will be strongly different from the previous ones which changed the production capacity of humankind and in turn, it is forecasted to modify completely our lives. The fourth industrial revolution makes the circumstance be more complicated because while there are many nations does not complete the other revolution (the second and the third ones, included Viet Nam) and the new technologies have appeared and jumped through old technologies. It makes the disturbance that has never seen before.

It is true because in comparison with previous Industrial revolution, this industrial revolution will develop in geometric progression instead of arithmetic progression as in the other revolution in both in range and system effect. The new technologies of the fourth industrial revolution are improved in extremely high speed and with the theory breakthroughs that have come true, for instance: automatic cars, the application of artificial intelligence in online business, medical care and financial issues. All of them have been bringing the profound changes in social activities generally and the development of administrative state foundation in particular. In this revolution, the speed of invention requires that the administrative state foundation have to change to adapt to new demand.

It is obvious to see that this revolution owns its specific characteristics of previous ones. In addition, it has individual characteristics because it is the revolution that removes the boundary among the physical, digital and biological field, and it changes basically the practical, virtual and biological world of human society. The principle of the fourth revolution depends on the digital technology foundation and integrates all intelligent technology in order to optimize processes, production methods. Furthermore, it emphasizes the technologies that have huge effects for instance: 3D technique, biological technique, new material technique, automatic technique and robotics, etc.obviously, this revolution is changing strongly all sides of life, economy, society, especially in the field regarding to using technology.

Recognized the significant meaning of the fourth industrial revolution, many nations have prepared the suitable solutions to adjust privacies to support and improve the development of fields and areas in this revolution. In Viet Nam, Party and government especially pay their attention on this revolution that presented by speeches of head-leader of Party, State and Government and especially in 5th Central Party conference it was emphasized that one of the most important solutions that improved the develepment of economy and society, is “fulfilling institution in developing and applying science and technology, in education, humanforce development, particularly high-quality human resources to use achievements of the 4th revolution technology, renews the model of developing tin economy, improve the productivity, quality and competitiveness of economy.

Thus, the 4th revolution has been affecting strongly, deeply in all field, particularly in the productivity of industry, agriculture, services, and public health care. In the field of state management, the 4th industrial revolution plays a crucial role that influences particularly to organization structure, functions, and management methods. With the advantages in connecting, sharing information on the foundation of the Internet, social networks, email, transaction software, information reception, etc, they are the useful tools to help agencies of state and government obtaining chances and conditions to construct model of e-government which is smart, effective and compact especially in the circumstance of integration and development.

 

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